There are approximately 31 mammals in the park, including the leopard, elephant, sloth bear, barking deer, spotted deer, water buffalo, and wild boar.
Wilpattu is a sanctuary for birds with the lakes sustaining them in abundance. It hosts a large variety of wetland bird species, endemic birds, and birds of prey.
Dry zone tree species such as Palu, Weera, Milla, Wewarna, Satin, and Ebony are common in the park, while almost extinct in other parts of the island
You can see the Monitor Lizard, Mugger Crocodile, Common Cobra, Rat Snake, Indian Python, Pond Turtle, and the Soft Shelled Turtle here.
When Prince Vijaya landed in Sri Lanka, he found Kuveni, queen of Yaksha tribe spinning cotton. Her palace ruins are visible inside Wilpattu.
This ancient 3rd BC Century temple once gave protection for a night to the Sri Maha Bodhi, which arrived from India. The area contains many ruins.